By Kuch Khaas Hai
Saturday, June 15, 2013
Introduction to Marketing Control
It is true to say that planning gives direction to an organisation,
planning enable an organisation to achieve its objectives, but without
control measures planning is of no mean, it's just an empty exercise
Business organisations do marketing planning to incorporate overall
marketing objectives, strategies, and programs of actions designed to
achieve marketing objectives. Marketing Planning involves setting
objectives and targets, and communicating these targets to people
responsible to achieve them.
After an organisation develops and implements the marketing plan, next
task is to control the marketing performance. Marketing plans and
strategies are required to be monitored, evaluated, and adapted to meet
the changing market environment, market needs, and market opportunities.
The process by which an organisation adapts its marketing plans and
strategies to reach its marketing objectives is called marketing
Definition of Marketing Control
Marketing Control can be defined as "the process of measuring and
evaluating the results of marketing strategies and plans, and taking
corrective action to ensure that marketing objectives are achieved."
Marketing Control can also be defined as "the set of practises and
procedures employed by firms to monitor and regulate their marketing
activities in achieving their marketing objectives."
Meaning of Marketing Control
Developing and implementing marketing plan is not enough to reach
marketing objectives; marketing plans and strategies are required to be
monitored, evaluated, and adapted to meet the changing market
environment, needs, and opportunities. Marketing control ensures
performance improvement by minimising gap between desired results and
actual results. If the actual results are found deviated from the
expected results, plans and strategies are adapted to bring
the results back to the desired level.
Marketing Control Process
Marketing control is a four step process :-
Define Marketing Objectives
Set Performance Standards
Compare Results Against Standards
Corrections and Alterations
Resources are scarce and costly so it is important to control marketing
plans. Controlling marketing plan is not an one time activity, it is
a series of actions, and it is required to be done regularly. Marketing
control process starts with the review of the marketing objectives.
After defining/redefining marketing objectives, performance standards
are set. Performance standards provide benchmarks to enable managers and
employees to decide how they are progressing towards achieving
Actual results are compared against standards. If the actual results are
in direction to the expected results, their is no problem in marketing
plan and its execution.
If actual results are deviated from the expected results, their is
requirement to correct and alter marketing plan to bring the results
back to the desired level.
Administrative Law-regulations issued by federal
agencies established to enforce the law
Affirmative Action Plan – employers who have 50 or
more employees and governmental contracts or subcontracts in excess of $50,000
are required to develop written affirmative action plan. Employers are expected
to make good faith effort to hire and promote minorities, women, Vietnam-era
veterans, disabled veterans, and people with disabilities.
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) –is a
nonjudicial method of settling a charge of discrimination through mediation by
an impartial third party. Title VII encourages parties to avoid litigation and
resolve charges of discrimination through ADR. There are several forms of ADR
including negotiation, mediation, fact finding, and arbitration. The EEOC
Arbitration - nonjudicial,
legal technique for resolving disputes by referring them to a third party for a
arbitrator may be a single person or an arbitration board, usually of three
Industrial Psychology- The
primary concerns of industrial psychology is which the basic relations in
industry between worker and machine and the organization. It is the application
of the concepts and methods of experimental, clinical, and social psychology to
Industrial Welfare Movement-attempts
by employers during the late 1800’s to improve conditions for employees, both
in the workplace and in their lives away from the job.
capitalistic philosophy holding that business owners were entitled to complete
control over employees.
to government jobs based on character and fitness, with removals made only for
Pendleton Act of 1883-
political and personal favoritism are the basis for determining the duties and
pay of public employees- merit system employment. It established the US Civil
Service Commission which was composed of three bipartisan commissioners appointed
by the president. It required open competitive examinations, probationary
periods, and protection from political pressures (merit system procedures).
Authorized the commission to supervise the conduct of examinations. Authorized
the president to extend merit system coverage by executive order.
Reform Movement-was a
political movement during the mid- to late-1800’s designed to end the Spoils
System of appointing people to government jobs.
Spoils System- also known
as a Patronage System is the practice of giving appointive offices to loyal
members of the party in power. The political party winning the election rewards
its campaign workers and other active supporters by appointment to government
posts and by other favors. The corruption and inefficiency bred by the system
reached staggering proportions in the administration of Ulysses S. Grant, and
reaction against this helped bring about civil service form, which was
inaugurated by creation of the Civil Service Commission in 1871. The spoils
system has continued for many federal offices and is even more prevalent in
state and local governments.
Members of business firms who helped workers with education, housing, medical
care, and other personal matters.
MERIT SYSTEM PRINCIPLES
1)Recruitment from all segment of society based on
knowledge, skills, and abilities
2)Fair and equitable treatment
3)Equal pay for the work of equal value
4)High standard of ethical conduct
5)Efficient utilization of the work force
6)Retention and separation based on performance
7)Education and training
8)Protection from political pressures
9)Protection of “whistle blowers”
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF THE U.S. CIVIL
1)The Era of “Gentlemen,”1789 – 1827
zLimited to the “gentry”
Era,” 1827 - 1883
zAndrew Jackson and populist politics
zFull blown patronage
zStrong executive leadership
zThe Pendleton Act of 1883
3)The New Civil
Service System, 1883-1978
zCorruption incompatible with government
zSeparation of politics and administration in
keeping with Frederick Taylor’s theories of scientific management
zExpansion of the merit system
zAmerican Society for Public Administration
founded in 1939
zFederal Service Entrance Exam established in
Civil Service System, 1978 - Present
EVOLUTON OF HUMAN RESOURCE
I.File Maintenance: Prior to the 1960’s was period of
file maintenance – emphasis on screening applicants, training or orienting
employees, data collection and storage, and social organizer
II.Government Accountability: 1960’s to 1980’s was period
of governmental accountability. Laws , court rulings, and accountability
proliferated. Dealt with equal employment opportunities, environmental
protection, employee health and safety, urban renewal and development, and
III.Organizational Accountability: Mid-1980’s to present is
a period of gaining and sustaining a competitive advantage. Emphasis on social
consciousness, controlling costs, enhancing competitiveness, adding value to
organizational products, and balancing use and conservation of natural
IV.Strategic Partner in late 1980’s to Present:
Development and implementation of mission, vision and goals for the
organization. Human resources participates in the assessment of internal strengths
and weaknesses and external opportunities and threats effecting the
In the 70’s and 80’s the coverage
of all major EEO laws and regulations was extended to the public Sector. In
1985, the US Supreme Court brought all functions of local government under the
provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. In 1990, the Americans with
Disabilities Act established employment right for citizens with physical and
Frederick Taylor-father of
scientific management believed that all tasks should be analyzed and that
management had the responsibility to determine how each task can be performed
in the “one best way” for each worker. Scientific management emphasized the
planning and simplification of tasks. His system of industrial
management has influenced the development of virtually every country enjoying
the benefits of modern industry.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreath-pioneered
time and motion studies
Henry Gantt-developed the
Gantt Chart which is used for scheduling based on time rather than quantity,
volume or weight.The third well-known
pioneer in the early days of scientific management was Henry Gantt. Gantt
worked for Frederick Taylor and is to be remembered for his humanizing
influence on management, emphasizing the conditions that have favorable
psychological effects on the worker.
The Production Assembly Line
From the doctrines of Taylor and the Gilbreths,
there followed rapid developments in machinery and technology and with the
improvement of materials came the moving assembly line. Towards the end of the
nineteenth century the internal combustion engine was invented, leading to the
development of the motor car. There was a move towards streamlining production,
and the first assembly line method of manufacture can probably be attributed to
the mail order factory of Sears and Roebuck of America.
More famous was Henry Ford. His car factory in
the United States
is the best example of the change to modern assembly-line techniques. Before
the 'line' was set up each car chassis was assembled by one man, taking a time
of about twelve and a half hours. Eight months later with standardization and
division of labor the total labor time had been reduced to just ninety-three
minutes per car. (It is interesting to note that the idea of assembly line came
to him when he was watching a moving conveyor of carcasses in a Chicago slaughterhouse. A
similar creative innovation to Gutenberg's conception of the printing press.
Employee engagement, also called worker engagement, is a business management concept. An "engaged employee" is one who is fully involved in, and enthusiastic about their work, and thus will act in a way that furthers their organization's interests. Download the presentation to know more about employee engagement.
1.Professional responsibility: HR professionals are
responsible for adding value to the organizations they serve and contributing
to the ethical success of those organizations. They accept professional
responsibility for their individual decisions and actions and are advocates for
the profession, engaging in activities that enhance its credibility and value.
2.Professional development: HR professionals must strive
to meet the highest standards of competence and commit to strengthen their
competencies on a continuous basis.
3.Ethical leadership: HR professionals are expected to
exhibit individual leadership as a role model for maintaining the highest
standards of ethical conduct.
4.Fairness and justice: HR professionals are ethically
responsible for promoting and fostering fairness and justice for all employees
and their organizations.
5.Conflicts of interest: HR professionals must maintain a
high level of trust with stakeholders. In the interest of professional
integrity, they must protect the interests of stakeholders and should not
engage in activities that create actual, apparent or potential conflicts of
6.Use of information: HR professionals consider and
protect the rights of individuals, especially in the acquisition and
dissemination of information while ensuring truthful communications and
facilitating informed decision-making.
1. Put loyalty to the highest moral principals and to country above
loyalty to Government persons, party, or department.
2. Uphold the Constitution, laws, and legal regulations of the United States
and of all governments therein and never be a party to their evasion.
3. Give a full day's labor for a full day's pay; giving to the
performance of his duties his earnest effort and best thought.
4. Seek to find and employ more efficient and economical ways of
getting tasks accomplished.
5. Never discriminate unfairly by the dispensing of special favors or
privileges to anyone, whether for remuneration or not; and never accept for
himself or his family, favors or benefits under circumstances which might be
construed by reasonable persons as influencing the performance of his
6. Make no private promises of any kind binding upon the duties of
office, since a Government employee has no private word which can be binding on
7. Engage in no business with the Government, either directly or
indirectly which is inconsistent with the conscientious performance of his governmental
8. Never use any information coming to him confidentially in the
performance of governmental duties as a means for making private profit.
9. Expose corruption wherever discovered.
10. Uphold these principles, ever conscious that public office is a